The X chromosome is one of the sex chromosomes which help determine the sex of the child about to be born. Usually, humans possess two sets of chromosomes, X and Y, which combine to determine the sex of the individual. While the females have two X chromosomes, males have one X and another Y chromosome. Some females have the Triple X syndrome or three X chromosomes instead of a normal two.
Top 10 Facts About X Chromosomes You Must Know About
Due to the large size of the X chromosomes, the number of genes in them outnumbers the ones in Y. It is why only males possess one copy of these genes. Males are prone to inherit diseases carried down by chromosome X. Also, the presence of XXX chromosomes in certain females causes delayed development of both language and speech skills.
To get to know more facts relating to the X chromosomes, make sure to keep reading.
- Since all humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, every cell in which the chromosomes are contained bear a nucleus. In the nucleus of every cell, the DNA or the Deoxyribonucleic Acid is packaged in thread-like structures called chromosomes.
- Almost all humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. One set of two chromosomes is from the mother, while the other one comes from the father. The last or 23rd pair of chromosomes refer to the sex chromosomes, X and Y. The other 22 pairs are called Autosomes.
- Females have two X chromosomes in the form of XX while males have two different kinds of chromosomes in each cell, one X and the other Y. But there can be deviations to this rule.
- The females have two chromosomes in each of their cells. But there is a twist in this case. One of the X chromosomes of the female species is inactivated. This nature of inactivation of the chromosomes stops the transcription from taking place. It happens to make sure that a potentially toxic, twice the single dose of X-linked genes does not take place.
- If there are some changes in the structure and composition of X chromosomes, it is not a matter to be left unnoticed. It can lead to many diseases and illnesses. One of them includes the Triple X syndrome, in which a woman has XXX chromosomes instead of the two normal chromosomes. Another such illness that can occur due to the change in the shape of chromosomes is the Turner syndrome. In this syndrome, the woman inherits only one copy of the X chromosome instead of the normal two.
- Research has proved that usually, females inherit the X chromosome from their mother and another X chromosome from their father. On the other hand, males inherit the X chromosome from their mother and the Y chromosome from their father.
- The size of the X chromosome is somewhat three times larger than that of the Y chromosome. The X chromosome contains about 900 genes, while the Y chromosome contains approximately 55 genes in total.
- The X chromosome, which remains inactivated, gets condensed in the nucleus. This small, thick structure present in the nucleus of the cell is known as a Barr body. These Barr bodies determine the sex of the baby.
- Some women have a condition called Tetrachromacy, which is related to the X chromosome. In this condition, the woman has a rare super color vision, which is considered to be very special. The women having this condition can view up to 100 million shades of color. It is because they have four different types of cone cells in their eye while everyone else has just two. In another condition called Trisomy X syndrome, the females with XXX chromosomes experience increased stature in terms of height.
If you wish to know about the top 10 facts about X chromosomes, make sure to read this article until the very end.